Script Breakdown And How To Use It for Budget Planning

Using A Script Breakdown To Plan Your Budget

The script breakdown will be your first job as a producer. it will help you to be more realistic about your script and its needs. In this post, I’m going to talk first about how to do a script breakdown and then how to use it for your budget planning.


Before you start breaking down your script, I recommend reading the script once without analyzing it. On the second reading, you can start to break it down.
There are many things you need to pay attention to, but first, you need to check the basic stuff:

Make sure the script is in right format

Once you’re getting the script, you need to check if it’s formatted the right way. Read my post on script format if you are not sure. If the screenplay is not written in the right format, you won’t be able to tell how long the film is going to be, which is an important part of the film budget. If you are having problems with formatting the script, there are many script breakdown software that can help you like the Final Draft Writer

You also need to pay attention to the scene numbers and the scene locations as I will explain now:

Scene numbers

You should also check if there are numbers on the beginning of each scene. If the there are no numbers, the production manager is the usually the one who needs to fix it. The scene numbers are very important to your organized work. If there are more scenes adding during production, you simply adding a letter to the number like 23-a, 23-b, etc. Don’t change the numbers of the scenes once you start production work.

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Script breakdown for locations

The second element to check is the locations of the scenes. Where does it all happen? Is it in a movie theater? Is it in the park? The scene location should be written in the beginning of each scene (See the script format post to understand more). When you write down the name of the location on your script breakdown sheet, it should be written the same way as it is written in the script, to avoid confusion. If the location is not clear in the script, you should call the script writer to clarify it.

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You also need to pay attention to how many scenes are shot inside and how many are shot outside? This is a thing that can really affect the film budget and schedule. For example, if a scene is shot outside, we only have time to shoot until the sun goes down  (since it’s our source of light)and if it’s a night scene that happens outside, we’ll need to create electricity solutions.

Breaking the scene

Now it’s time to take some markers and start marking the script elements by categories. What you need to do is to go over the script and mark in a different color every element that needs your attention. For example, every time there is a special effect, you can mark it with blue color, every time props come up, you mark it with red, every time a stunt man is needed, mark it with a different marker, every time extras are needed, mark it with a different color (you can divide the extras into speaking roles and non-speaking roles) etc. More things you should look at are the cast of the film, special effects, any special equipment, any costumes needed.

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The script breakdown sheet

The script breakdown sheet should be a table with this information: scene number and name, the page it appears in the script, the location, interior or exterior, is it day or is it night, the characters that are needed for the scene, the extras needed, props and special notes Like wardrobe, set dressing, etc. There should also be a brief description of the scene and If there are storyboards to the scene, it should be attached.

Click here to see how a script breakdown template should look like. Also, check this link to see many script breakdown examples. I recommend to go there and choose the script breakdown example that works best for you.

Now the only thing missing from your film budget planning is the schedule:

Making the schedule

What you need to do now is group your information by elements. For example, if you have 23 scenes with the same actor – You should plan it so they are all be shot together. You don’t want to be in a place where you shoot a scene with him and then telling him to rest for 5 hours while you shoot another scene that he is not in it. The only problem now is that moving around from one location to another can be expensive and tiresome too, so you have to take that into consideration too. The main idea here is to take all the elements that you marked before and use them to plan the schedule.

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While calculating the days you should take into consideration the director’s vision and his style of work. Does he like to do a lot of takes or is he a fast worker? While working on the schedule you should also be in touch with heads of key departments, and see if they are OK with what you planned.

As you can understand the schedule and the script breakdown can and probably will change during production. The trick is to find as many elements that need your attention right at the start.  With practice, I can promise you, that you’ll be able to find more and more elements to mark and pay attention to and you’ll learn to do it more easily.

Documentary Filmmaking Tips

Tips For Documentary Filmmaking

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Documentary filmmaking is a long process and sometimes an exhausting one. You must be prepared for disappointments and for the process of learning from those disappointments.Since you don’t have a deadline to finish shootings, as oppose to fiction films, You can find yourself shooting for years and spending, even more, years on editing the film.

The important thing to know is that when you’ll do a documentary that will work, the benefits are great! You get to explore undiscovered sides of your life and to share your voice, which turns out to be the voice of many others, with your viewers.
this is a result that has no price.
I wanted to start this documentary filmmaking course with some tips to get you start

So here are some Documentary filmmaking tips to help you get started:

Documentary director’s characteristics

As a Documentary filmmaker, you must do whatever it takes to document what is important and meaningful in your opinion. A documentary filmmaker is a one who lives to reveal hidden truths. With that, even when you tell the complete truth, you may fail, if you won’t be able to prove your film as such. A documentary filmmaker needs to have the ability to tell a story through visual images, and to be able to touch the emotions of his audience with the help of these images.When you’ll deal Documentary with a particular subject, as a filmmaker, you must be aware of three things:

  1. All the features and the point of views of the same subject,
  2. To be aware of the emotional changes that apply to him when he was exposed to the details of that world,
    and of course
  3. Be aware of the medium with which he communicates.

You will achieve awareness of these three things from repeating practice.

Communication with the viewer

The cinematic language you’ll choose to transfer your ideas has a great influence on your communication with your audience. Your movie audience needs to understand as soon as possible the message you want to discuss, and how you are going to deal with it. On the other hand, What you really need to decide is, what is more, important to you- Delivering the viewer a message or learning something about yourself and delivering it to the viewer. In my opinion, a good documentary film should be able to take us to a world of ideas we didn’t know or were too afraid to go in by our self. To help us go into these worlds outside our boundaries, a good story is a must.

Film or Video

There are many benefits to shooting in a video. A lot, actually. George Lucas once said about moving to digital that “It’s as profound a change as going from silent to talkies and going from black-and-white to color. It gives artists a whole range of possibilities that they never had before”. The advantages are big: You can shoot with a relatively small camera, which helps greatly in documentary shootings, especially if you do not want to stress your film’s object.
In addition, you can use a very large amount of raw material – As much as you want really – and it doesn’t cost much very compare to film. You can also move your materials to film (Of course there are preparations to be done).
On the other hand, there is nothing like the look of the film, so if you still shooting on film, do a lot of tests with video and know what you’re going to take and how to in advance.

Distribution

Let’s be honest. In today’s world chances that your documentary will be shown in big theaters are pretty low. Today you are able to distribute your own movie over the Internet and it’s not a method you should take lightly. Many filmmakers have done just that. They picked a site where the audience could for a small fee download their movie and watch at home. Sometimes the site also contained behind the scenes of the film, trailers and more. This is a method that saves costs drastically and most importantly it is reducing your dependence on production companies and could help your chances to reach more people than on TV. The distribution through the internet is great mainly because your can reach directly to the people that most likely will take an interest in the film and not just everyone like TV does.

I hope these Documentary filmmaking tips helped you to understand what it really means to be a documentary filmmaker. I f you think you like it, I invite you to read the rest of my post in the documentary category.  I’m sure you’ll like it.

Depth of field – Create great image

Working With Depth Of Field

The depth of field is the area in the shot where all the items in it look sharp. You can say the depth of field “decides” what is going to be sharp in the picture and what is not and by that creating depth in the picture. 


The two types of depth of field 

There are two types of depth in image: shallow depth and deep depth.

Shallow depth is a field in the shot where the focus area is very small. We usually use it to direct the viewer’s attention to something specific in the frame. You might also see it a lot in interviews. The DSLR cameras became very famous because of their ability to create a shallow depth of field very easily. Anyway, what you need to remember is that the closer you are to the photographed object, the shallower the depth of field is going to be. 
The second type is Deep depth which means that the entire frame from background to foreground is as sharp as possible. 

The three factors that contribute to the depth of field

Aperture -This mechanism is in charge of the size of the lens opening that determines the amount of light entering the lens and also the angle of light rays that are hitting it. Aperture is measured in f/stops, for example, f/2 or f/16. F/2, For example, represents an aperture diameter that is 1/2 the focal length of the lens. Therefor, f/2 will be bigger than f/16.
A larger opening will decree the depth of field. If your camera has an internal neutral density (ND) filter you can dial this in.

Focal length – The longer the focal length of your lens is, the shallower the depth of field will be. In other words, the more you magnified your object the less depth of field you’ll have.

The 3rd factor is the distance of the object from the camera– The closer you are to the filmed object, the shallower the depth of focus will be, the farther the object is- the greater the depth will be.

There are many tables that can help you do calculations needed, but there are not always accurate and sometimes missing the new cameras and lenses out there. I recommend playing with those 3 factors until you’ll have complete control and understanding on them. If you don’t have time for playing, there are many apps that can help you to calculate the depth of field. A good one is called pCAM FILM + DIGITAL PRO – Thin Man Inc. This app not only does great calculations with a depth of field, but it also calculate exposure, running times and more. Another good app is Toland ASC Digital Assistant – Chemical Wedding which also does a lot more than just calculating depth of field

Shooting with depth of field

Using this tool needs to be considered while doing the shooting breakdown. Let’s say you are shooting a scene with a long shot, a medium shot, and a close-up, you may need to increase the light in the medium shot in order to get the depth of field you want or even to change lens.

The depth of field is a great way to make a good picture, but also good to manipulate the viewer’s emotions and concentration. Don’t use it just for the sake of using it. On the set while looking at the picture on the monitor, you should always ask yourself, is it what I want? How does it serve the theme of the scene and even the premise of the film (among other question we will learn later on in the blog)? Using this tool right will make your film look more professional and interesting.

 

 

 

 

Film Directing – Auditioning Actors for Film

Auditioning Actors – Rules & Tips

Auditioning actors is a field that many beginners at film directing are taking for granted, It’s a very hard and long process that many directors choose to not be part of. I think the reason is because this is a stage where you have to make great decisions. You don’t want to do a mistake at this stage. In these days you have more options than ever, so making a mistake is even more scary.

Auditioning actors is also a great chance for the director to hear his texts being played  for the first time and it’s a great opportunity to test scenes that you weren’t sure about them. That’s why I’m going to give you some tips for setting up auditions. I think that there is nothing worse than getting stuck in production. When you find a good actor that can act and listen, you did 90 percent of your actor’s directing job.

The main idea is to play with the actor. Try different approaches to him. For example, you can let a guy play a female role in the script and vice versa and see what happens.

Casting Director

The auditioning of actors is a complete field we can talk about for hours. That’s why, if you have the option, use a casting director, It can be great. Today the casting directors, in my opinion, don’t get the respect they deserve, but I really think it’s an important role.
These are the skills needed for a casting director: good communication, better identification of talent, good management ability, the ability to direct and paying attention to detail.
The director needs to explain to the casting director what he wants what his vision for the film is and the specific role

Advertising the audition

The possibilities for advertising your auditions are diverse. You can advertise on Facebook, acting groups, industrial sites, acting schools and so on. Once you post you are looking for actors, you will probably be flooded with e-mails from dozens of actors. That’s why you should try to a specific description of the part as you can. You should describe the character name, age, important characterization points and two interesting sentences about it. If the physical description is important, you can add that one too.
Most actors will send you photos and resumes. Often there is a temptation to check only the images, but it is very important to read their resumes too.

Rent a room for auditions

Do not audition actors in your home or your friend’s home. It shows the lack of professionalism and can be a little intimidating for actresses. It is worth investing a few dollars renting rehearsal room.

Auditions forms filling

While the actors are waiting for their turn, give them to pre-fill a form that will include date, the name of the production, below that, make room for actor information: name, address, home phone and mobile, email and the role he is faced.

Schedule your auditions

All the actors auditions should be between 10 and 20 minutes, tops! You should have someone to be with the actors that are waiting in the hallway. There should also be refreshments.

What are you looking for when you cast an actor

You really should know what it is you are looking for when you are auditioning actors. Maybe the role you are casting is one that demands the actor to give parts from his life outside. Does the actor ready for that kind of  vulnerability? I will talk about it later on this post and will explain how to do that, but I will mention it now too – you need to check if your actor can listen – not only to you but also to the actor he is playing with. The important element you should check is can the actor take the lines you gave him and make them sound like they are his own.

Pay attention to the small details


When auditioning actors it’s very hard to find in a few minutes if an actor can really act, so what you have to look mainly is his charisma and screen presence. Note the actor immediately as he enters the room. Pay attention to his body language, is it conveys security or insecurity? note his walking style, the way he sits, does he talk too much? Did he come unprepared? If the actor got some information about the character he is faced, pay attention to what he wore in honor of the audition.

Audition Management


Actors audition begin with an introductory interview. The actor will talk to the camera and say his name and age and preferably also a phone number, in case the form get lost. You can ask questions like, what have you done lately? What was the most enjoyable role he played so far? What were your experiences of previous productions? and so on.

“The most important job of the director is casting. If you can cast your film in an interesting way, then you’re 50 percent there.”

Susan Seidelman

You should also tell them about yourself. Your experience and how did you get that movie. Explain how many days of filming are ahead, and how many days of rehearsals are needed. note their responses. If they are too hesitant, you might want to give them up.

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Sometimes you may prefer to do only the first reading of the text. At this time, the actor gets the text for the first time at the audition. He will probably ask questions about the text (you can learn a lot about the actors from these questions). I like to start by just telling them to just do their thing. That way I can see what they are able to bring without my direction. When they start acting, note his acting and the character he brings you. Does he have something good you have not thought of before? If something does not work for him, try to let him do the part standing up. Sometimes it is a good idea to give them a direction just to see if they can follow a direction, so it’s a good thing to bring one even if you don’t feel it is needed.  Let them read the text for themselves first, then adjust them a little in order to see how they understand what you are saying, then give them a completely different direction. What is important here than the way the actors act, is how they change their acting in accordance with your instructions.

Set a relaxed mood

Keep in mind that the actor is very tight and probably you will be stressed too. Try to calm him down with respect. If the actor does not fit, you may want to tell him gently in place, instead of having him sitting on the phone days in anticipation for your call.

Working in pairs

If there’re roles such as lovers couples, mother, and son, etc., you should invite them to audition together and see the chemistry.
Generally, you should let the actor act with another actor so that it is easy to produce emotional responses.

Shoot the audition


If it possible,
shoot the audition and if possible, let someone else do it and tell him to shoot it from several angles. On the other hand, it is advised that the camera man won’t be too noticeable because it can put pressure on the actor that way.
The camera man should take as many close-ups as he can, to see facial expressions and as many medium shots, to absorb body movements.

Sometimes it is advised to shoot actors when they are not aware of the camera. Suppose as assistant director gives the actor notes between takes, He can sit where the other actor is sitting then the camera man will take the actors reactions while he listens.

Decision-making and Last tips


If you’re debating between two actors on one character, it is better to go for the actor with more experience and talent than the one that looks better.

In low budget movies, it is very easy to find yourself compromising the process of auditions with actors you do not feel complete with them. Try not to let that happen. If the actor is not really enthusiastic about the part, the audience will feel it.

Just remember, as Jack Nicolson once said, Once you cast someone for a movie, that person is perfect for the role.

Your Story Premise

 

Make A Strong Story With A Good Story Premise

The story premise is actually the leading force behind what we do in real life. In storytelling, the premise the concept that leads the plot and the characters in the story.

The biggest advantage of the story premise is that it helps you understand your story and your main character a lot better- Why is your main character acting the way it is? Why doesn’t it give up? What’s it desires? What’s the source of its obstacles? and Why does he having a hard time overcoming them?
Once you’ll answer those questions you will know the core of your story better.

How do I know if the premise is good?

It is important to understand that a good premise is not judged by the idea itself. We have plenty of ideas. The premise is judged by the way the director translate the idea to film. The premise has to enter the viewer mind without him noticing it.

All good premises are built from 3 essential parts:  An ambitious character, a conflict, and a closure. I will talk about these 3 things later on in my blog, but for now, you need to know that your premise will dictate those 3 elements. Once you find your premise, your characters are not free anymore, they need to serve that premise. Everything in the story- the characters, the conflicts and the actions should arise with the screenwriter’s premise.

Now:

Usually, you should be able to sum your premise up in 2 or 3 sentences. If you can’t, then it’s probably not accurate enough. Ask yourself what your story tell us that we have to know, what’s the point of this story? At first, you can start by formulating it as a question- for example- “Doe’s love wins it all?”
On the other hand, you have to make sure your premise is not too obvious. We still want to entertain them.


The 4th element of a good premise

There is another important element to consider, when writing the premise and it is the script writer’s point of view.  It may sound like a not important thing to deal with, but trust me- it is! First of all, If you don’t have anything you want to say, why do you want to work on this art form? There are many other better ways to make money. But more important, your unique point of view is what can make your movie an original one. I recommend reading the find your own voice article to understand how to find your own point of view.
The theme doesn’t always has to be a very important one about mankind, it depends on your way of seeing the world, but every story has to have one. In my opinion, a movie should never be judged by his premise but, by the way, he proves his premise in the movie.


When do I start thinking about my premise?

The premise is usually the next step after the idea, although sometimes it becomes clearer after writing a few drafts. Although it will be easier for you to develop your story with a clear premise.
Once you find your premise I recommend writing it in a small piece of paper and putting it somewhere in front o
f you while you are writing the story.

How to deliver the premise in the film – 2 examples

In the movie A Clockwork Orange, the story premise is “Can we define goodness and evil with esthetics?” The answer according to the movie is NO. We see it best in this scene:

 

In this scene, the hooligans are breaking into the old couple’s house, beat the husband and rape his wife. For me, This is one of the most violent scenes in cinema’s history. Kubrick plays an evil game with us. He wants us to feel ambivalent about this scene.
So how does he do that? With colors!
The scene before has very gray colors. When we get use to the gray, blue cold and dead colors, we move on to the next scene. Now, we are in a house with lots of warm lights, the camera is very stable. We feel good about this scene. We are set to start the ambivalent feeling. 

another good example will be the movie Rumble Fish. This is the most important scene in the film. Can you guess why?

So how does Francis Ford Coppola tells us to pay attention to the scene? First of all the name of the film is Rumble fish and Rusty’s brother is talking about rumble fish, but also, this is the only scene with some color in it. In this scene, Rusty James meets his biker brother in front of an aquarium in the local pet store. Rusty asks if everything is alright and his brother tells him to look at the fish. He explains to Rusty that the two tanks are separated because if they will be together they will fight themselves. The brother tells the officer that the fish belong in the river – “I don’t think they’ll fight if they will be in the river.” and this is the big question of the film- the great story premise, “Will they fight if they are free?”. The film premise is “Are we, humans,  evil by nature or does society makes us that way?”

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 Homework

Your homework now is to take a look at some of your favorite movies (choose at least 5) and find out what the story premise is. Not only you need to find it out, you will also need to prove it through the film. How does the film project this premise? I really recommend doing this homework and if you want to send it to me I’ll be glad to read it

Recording Film Sound On Locations

Tips for Recording Film Sound On Locations

Since the work on the sound design can take a lot of time, you should invest in the sound recording area properly. Why to waste the time of your sound designer on eliminating noises from the scene instead of working on more creative stuff for the scene.

Script breakdown in a sound context

The first step on film sound recording is reading the script. While you read the script, simply write down all the sounds that you hear in your head. If you are starting to have any ideas for ambience sounds, write them down too.
Now:
Look at your list and decide what are the sounds you’ll need to record on location and what are the sounds you can record later on by yourself.

Checking the location

All production begins with locations scout. This scout is done usually with the cinematographer, director, producer, and sound-Men. Sometimes the screenwriter and lighting technician come along. As a soundman, you must insist on being on this scout. If it does not fit your schedule, you may want to reach locations a day prior to the shooting. On the location pay attention to background noises. Will you be able to overcome them? Is it at certain times? Clapp and shout loudly. Do you notice some echo? It’s very important that if you hear something that might be a problem, you’ll insist on fixing it. Don’t let anyone tell you stuff like “Don’t worry, we will fix it in the post”- That’s never happening.

Microphones

The best way to record film sound is to use a few microphones, so each one will be on different character. It is important that your microphones will be of the same type and the right ones to any specific location. There are two main types of microphones: condenser and dynamic.
The dynamic microphone is the type which you usually see with singers and TV news people. Its drawback is that it need to be very close to the source of the sound, which means it goes in the picture.

The condenser microphone  is a mic that receives mainly the sound which it directed to and can come in the form of what is known as Gun mike which is a long microphone. The Gun mike connects to a long pole that called a boom. With this boom, the microphone will be closer to the actor more easily and without it getting inside the image. Condenser also comes with a small microphone that attaches directly to the actor who speaks and it is called Neck Mike. Neck Mike is used mostly in interviews. Sometimes it can be hard to hide it because it should be connected to the actor’s shirt and close to the connection of the neck with the chest. You can use a wireless Neck Mike on scenes where the actor is running or doing tasks that are difficult to follow with a regular condenser.


Hiding the microphones

Film sound is also the art of hiding the microphone. Whatever microphone you’ll choose, you should also think in advance where to hide it in the scene while taking into account that the more you remove the microphone from the character the more background noise will be recorded.
What you’ll need to do is simple:
first to put the actors in place and clarify the boundaries of the frame now it’s possible to determine a good place hidden microphones.You should also note that the actor isn’t standing next to a big noise source.

The Boom Man

During the shooting, the boom man is holding the microphone with a long pole called a boom. The sound man sits behind the mixer that is connected to the microphone and make sure the sound volume stay the same and at the right level all the time. In a low-budget productions the sound man has to be also the boom man, and while he holds the pole (boom), he works on the sound mixer. That is not recommended.

Some tips about holding the boom

  • The Boom man is holding the microphone with legs apart and arms outstretched. It is recommended to keep the boom over the head.
  • You Should pay attention that the cable is firmly held against the microphone boom, or else there will be a cable noise in the shot.
  • The boom should strive to move as little as possible, In order not to make strange noises.
  • While shooting microphone should be directed at the actor who speaks.

Room Tone

Do not leave the location without recording 30 seconds of room atmosphere sound. That means that the whole team is completely silent and only the natural noise of the place is recorded.

Sound tables

The sound man should hold the table containing the following information: scene, shot, Take, Timecode and description. In the description box, he writes his comments on the sound.

single system or double system

When shooting on film, the sound can be recorded separately (double system)to a machine. It used to be only when filming with film, but nowadays we use it even for digital shooting. The main advance of the double system recording is that there are many good cameras that don’t have the XLR connection you need to connect the mike.The single recording means recording directly into the camera.
You’ll need to decide which one will suit you best

 

Digital video editing’s stages

The Stages of Video Editing

Digital video editing's stages
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The digital video editing process is divided into several stages. Many people considered this part as a very simple one (simply plug shots together like Lego), but this is a mistake that hurts lots of beginners filmmakers. Digital video editing is one of the most important steps in the film production. It is basically writing the final script of the film.

so here are all the stages, you need to go through when getting into the editing room:

Watching the raw material

All of the digital video editing processes starts with watching the materials from beginning to the end. This is usually done by the director, and the video editor and sometimes the producer too. While watching they will decide what the video editor should and shouldn’t sample and they will also start to have an idea as for how the film should look like. Many productions have a thing called “Dailies” which is a meeting of all the lead production members to watch the raw material of what they shot that day. Some video editor like to participate on that, so they won’t have to watch all of it together at once. Sometimes you might get notes about the shootings. 

It is advisable to watch the material by the order it was shot since it can help you to see how the scenes were developed and to understand the director mindset. At this point, you should start to have an idea as for how the film should look like. Pay attention to the shots and performances that are really doing something for you and write them down.

Sampling

The next digital video editing step will be a sampling all of the selected materials. Which means capturing the material into the editing software. If you still live in the 90’s and your materials were taken from Mini DV tapes, it is customary to capture the materials with a special video for this kind of tapes. You can also capture from a mini-DV camera, but is not recommended for the camera to agree with that ;-). The sampling operation is made simpler when working with files, although sometimes your editing program will ask you to convert the files before starting.

Organize your material

The video editor has to deal with a large amount of raw material. Usually, he will make one minute of film from every few hours of material, so it’s very important to work in an orderly and organized manner. The sampling stage is the stage to organize your material. The organization of the material is very important and will help you to analyze your material and to work more effective. You can read more about it at my post on Organizing Video & Footage in Your Video Editing Software

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Assembly

Connecting the best raw material segments together into one very long movie without any real editing. The video editor can work with a shooting script or a storyboard as a guideline. It is also possible to insert clips that you are unsure about them. The aim is mainly to arrange the raw materials in the chronicle order of the film while reducing them as much as possible. When you’ll finish the assembly, you might find that the pace of every scene is very different from each other. At this point it’s OK.

In most cases, you will want to start from the beginning of the film, but sometimes it might work best to start from the middle and then connect all the scenes together. 

 

Rough Cut

The rough cut stage is when you start thinking about the story. The director and the editor are required to make large artistic decisions for the film and to built the foundation of the director’s vision. The rough cut is shown to the producer and everyone that can contribute to the shaping of the overall editing. The cuts are still not perfect, but the general idea of how the film is going to look like is presented.

Fine Cut

At this point, the film has been shortened to a final length. The director and the video editor have been tightening all the cuts, the dialogs, the pace of the film and so on. It’s still not the final cut completely, there are still some scenes that might be deleted, but it is the closest you can get to final cut, before sending it to sound design and color correction. After these stages there are several additional steps that the film has to go through in order to reach perfection:
1. sound design – Today video editors can perform many repairs to the film’s sound, but they are still limited, so you should send the film to sound designers for best results. 2. Color-correction -The basic color corrections is increasing the contrast of the black and white colors and highlighting the image or change the dominant colors in the movie. As long as you need basic things, the video editor can help you, but it is a profession by itself and should go to someone who specializes in color correction and also has the right equipment for it.

Personally, I recommend that the video editor should also be at least in one meeting of the pre- production stage. That way he can prevent choices that might make trouble when coming to the editing room, and explain what he needs to create the atmosphere the film director needs.

Point of view

The camera transmits the point of view of an object in the scene. It basically takes the place of looking. If we are filming two people talking and we want to pass the point of view of one over the other, the camera will be in front of the photographed object in the place of the one we want to emulate his eyes. Usually the photographed object will not look directly into the camera, but 30 degrees to the side. If the object looks directly into the camera, it’s like he is looking directly at the audience and thus breaks the magic of cinema. Of course there are quite a few films that do this on purpose, but this should be a conscious decision.

read about more camera angles here